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Plos Genetics : an Essential Role for Zygotic Expression in the Pr...

By: Gregory P. Copenhaver

Description : The Drosophila embryo proceeds through thirteen mitotic divisions as a syncytium. Its nuclei distribute in the embryo’s interior during the first six divisions, dividing synchronously with a cycle time of less than ten minutes. After seven divisions (nuclear cycle 8), the syncytial blastoderm forms as the nuclei approach the embryo surface and slow their cycle time: subsequent divisions proceed in waves that initiate at the poles. Because genetic studies ha...

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Plos Genetics : Oxr1 is Essential for Protection Against Oxidative...

By: Harry T. Orr

Description : Oxidative stress is a common etiological feature of neurological disorders, although the pathways that govern defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurodegeneration remain unclear. We have identified the role of oxidation resistance 1 (Oxr1) as a vital protein that controls the sensitivity of neuronal cells to oxidative stress: mice lacking Oxr1 display cerebellar neurodegeneration, and neurons are less susceptible to exogenous stress when the g...

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Plos Genetics : Targeting Determinants of Dosage Compensation in D...

By: R. Scott Hawley

Description : The dosage compensation complex (DCC) in Drosophila melanogaster is responsible for up-regulating transcription from the single male X chromosome to equal the transcription from the two X chromosomes in females. Visualization of the DCC, a large ribonucleoprotein complex, on male larval polytene chromosomes reveals that the complex binds selectively to many interbands on the X chromosome. The targeting of the DCC is thought to be in part determined by DNA s...

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Plos Genetics : the Tale Class Homeobox Gene Smed-prepdefines the ...

By: Susan E. Mango

Description : Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developm...

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Plos Genetics : Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal Dna Contained ...

By: Robert Desalle

Description : Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Con...

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Plos Genetics : the Caenorhabditis Elegans Jnk Signaling Pathway A...

By: Danielle A. Garsin

Description : MAP kinases are integral to the mechanisms by which cells respond to a wide variety of environmental stresses. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the KGB-1 JNK signaling pathway regulates the response to heavy metal stress. In this study, we identified FOS-1, a bZIP transcription factor, as a target of KGB-1-mediated phosphorylation. We further identified two transcriptional targets of the KGB-1 pathway, kreg-1 and kreg-2/lys-3, which are required for the defense a...

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Plos Genetics : Pparγ2 is a Key Driver of Longevity in the Mouse, ...

By: Gregory S. Barsh

Description : Aging involves a progressive physiological remodeling that is controlled by both genetic and environmental factors. Many of these factors impact also on white adipose tissue (WAT), which has been shown to be a determinant of lifespan. Interrogating a transcriptional network for predicted causal regulatory interactions in a collection of mouse WAT from F2 crosses with a seed set of 60 known longevity genes, we identified a novel transcriptional subnetwork of...

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Plos Genetics : Brca2 and Trp53 Deficiency Cooperate in the Progre...

By: James M. Ford

Description : Epidemiological studies have shown that one of the strongest risk factors for prostate cancer is a family history of the disease, suggesting that inherited factors play a major role in prostate cancer susceptibility. Germline mutations in BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer with its predominant tumour suppressor function thought to be the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. BRCA2 has also been implicated in prostate cancer etiology, but it is uncl...

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Plos Genetics : Microevolution of Helicobacter Pylori During Prolo...

By: Harmit S. Malik

Description : Our understanding of basic evolutionary processes in bacteria is still very limited. For example, multiple recent dating estimates are based on a universal inter-species molecular clock rate, but that rate was calibrated using estimates of geological dates that are no longer accepted. We therefore estimated the short-term rates of mutation and recombination in Helicobacter pylori by sequencing an average of 39,300 bp in 78 gene fragments from 97 isolates. T...

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Plos Genetics : Robust Prediction of Expression Differences Among ...

By: Greg Gibson

Description : Many genetic variants that are significantly correlated to gene expression changes across human individuals have been identified, but the ability of these variants to predict expression of unseen individuals has rarely been evaluated. Here, we devise an algorithm that, given training expression and genotype data for a set of individuals, predicts the expression of genes of unseen test individuals given only their genotype in the local genomic vicinity of th...

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Plos Genetics : Drosophilahistone Deacetylase-3 Controls Imaginal ...

By: R. Scott Hawley

Description : Histone deacetylases (HDACs) execute biological regulation through post-translational modification of chromatin and other cellular substrates. In humans, there are eleven HDACs, organized into three distinct subfamilies. This large number of HDACs raises questions about functional overlap and division of labor among paralogs. In vivo roles are simpler to address in Drosophila, where there are only five HDAC family members and only two are implicated in tran...

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Plos Genetics : Inactivation of Tif1C Cooperates with Krasg12D to ...

By: Bruce E. Clurman

Description : Inactivation of the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFb) tumor suppressor pathway contributes to the progression of Pancreatic Ductal AdenoCarcinoma (PDAC) since it is inactivated in virtually all cases of this malignancy. Genetic lesions inactivating this pathway contribute to pancreatic tumor progression in mouse models. Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 gamma (TIF1c) has recently been proposed to be involved in TGFb signaling, functioning as either...

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Plos Genetics : Genetic Evidence for Hybrid Trait Speciation in He...

By: Bruce Walsh

Description : Homoploid hybrid speciation is the formation of a new hybrid species without change in chromosome number. So far, there has been a lack of direct molecular evidence for hybridization generating novel traits directly involved in animal speciation. Heliconius butterflies exhibit bright aposematic color patterns that also act as cues in assortative mating. Heliconius heurippa has been proposed as a hybrid species, and its color pattern can be recreated by intr...

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Plos Genetics : Contrasted Patterns of Molecular Evolution in Domi...

By: Rodney Mauricio

Description : Self-incompatibility has been considered by geneticists a model system for reproductive biology and balancing selection, but our understanding of the genetic basis and evolution of this molecular lock-and-key system has remained limited by the extreme level of sequence divergence among haplotypes, resulting in a lack of appropriate genomic sequences. In this study, we report and analyze the full sequence of eleven distinct haplotypes of the self-incompatibi...

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Plos Genetics : a High Incidence of Meiotic Silencing of Unsynapse...

By: R. Scott Hawley

Description : Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, re...

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Plos Genetics : the Toll-like Receptor Gene Family is Integrated I...

By: Derry C. Roopenian

Description : In recent years the functions that the p53 tumor suppressor plays in human biology have been greatly extended beyond ‘‘guardian of the genome.’’ Our studies of promoter response element sequences targeted by the p53 master regulatory transcription factor suggest a general role for this DNA damage and stress-responsive regulator in the control of human Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene expression. The TLR gene family mediates innate immunity to a wide variety of...

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Plos Genetics : Heritable Change Caused by Transient Transcription...

By: Josep Casadesús

Description : Transmission of cellular identity relies on the faithful transfer of information from the mother to the daughter cell. This process includes accurate replication of the DNA, but also the correct propagation of regulatory programs responsible for cellular identity. Errors in DNA replication (mutations) and protein conformation (prions) can trigger stable phenotypic changes and cause human disease, yet the ability of transient transcriptional errors to produc...

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Plos Genetics : Two Pathways Recruit Telomerase to Saccharomyces C...

By: Sue Biggins

Description : The catalytic subunit of yeast telomerase, Est2p, is a telomere associated throughout most of the cell cycle, while the Est1p subunit binds only in late S/G2 phase, the time of telomerase action. Est2p binding in G1/early S phase requires a specific interaction between telomerase RNA (TLC1) and Ku80p. Here, we show that in four telomerase-deficient strains (cdc13-2, est1A¨, tlc1-SD, and tlc1-BD), Est2p telomere binding was normal in G1/early S phase but red...

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Plos Genetics : Target Gene Analysis by Microarrays and Chromatin ...

By: Berthold Gottgens

Description : HEY bHLH transcription factors have been shown to regulate multiple key steps in cardiovascular development. They can be induced by activated NOTCH receptors, but other upstream stimuli mediated by TGFß and BMP receptors may elicit a similar response. While the basic and helix-loop-helix domains exhibit strong similarity, large parts of the proteins are still unique and may serve divergent functions. The striking overlap of cardiac defects in HEY2 and combi...

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Plos Genetics : Drosophila Setdb1 is Required for Chromosome 4 Sil...

By: Asifa Akhtar

Description : Histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is associated with gene repression and heterochromatin formation. In Drosophila, SU(VAR)3–9 is responsible for H3K9 methylation mainly at pericentric heterochromatin. However, the histone methyltransferases responsible for H3K9 methylation at euchromatic sites, telomeres, and at the peculiar Chromosome 4 have not yet been identified. Here, we show that DmSETDB1 is involved in nonpericentric H3K9 methylation. Analysis o...

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