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Mathematical Statistics


Mathematical statistics is the study of statistics from a mathematical standpoint, using probability theory as well as other branches of mathematics such as linear algebra and analysis. The term "mathematical statistics" is closely related to the term "statistical theory" but also embraces modelling for actuarial science and non-statistical probability theory, particularly in Scandinavia.

 
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Rapid Ventilation of the Mexico City Basin and Regional Fate of th...

By: B. De Foy; M. J. Molina; L. T. Molina; J. R. Varela

Description: Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin...

Ashbaugh, L L., Malm, W C., and Sadeh, W Z.: A residence time probability analysis of sulfur concentrations at Grand Canyon National Park, Atmos. Environ., 19, 1263–1270, 1985.; Banta, R M., Seniff, C J., Nielsen-Gammon, J., Darby, L S., Ryerson, T B., Alvarez, R J., Sandberg, S R., Williams, E J., and Trainer, M.: A bad air day in Houston, Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 86, 657–669, 2005.; Baumann, K. and Stohl, A.: Validation of a long-range trajectory model using gas balloon ...

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The 1985 Southern Hemisphere Mid-latitude Total Column Ozone Anoma...

By: D. Smale; M. Dameris; R. Deckert; G. E. Bodeker; H. Garny

Description: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Lauder, New Zealand. One of the most significant events in the evolution of the ozone layer over southern mid-latitudes since the late 1970s was the large decrease observed in 1985. This event remains unexplained and a detailed investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the event has not previously been undertaken. In this study, the 1985 Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude total column ozone anomal...

Ajtic, J., Connor, B. J., Lawrence, B. N., Bodeker, G. E., Hoppel, K. W., Rosenfield, J. E., and Heuff, D. N.: Dilution of the Antarctic ozone hole into southern midlatitudes, 1998-2000, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D17107, doi:10.1029/2003JD004500, 2004.; Bodeker, G. E., Connor, B. J., Liley, J. B., and Matthews, W. A.: The global mass of ozone: 1978–1998, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2819–2822, 2001.; Baldwin, M. P., Gray, L. J., Dunkerton, T. J., Hamilton, K., Haynes, P. H., Ra...

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Repeatability and Randomness in Heterogeneous Freezing Nucleation ...

By: G. Vali

Description: Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA. This study is aimed at clarifying the relative importance of the specific character of the nuclei and of the duration of supercooling in heterogeneous freezing nucleation by immersed impurities. Laboratory experiments were carried out in which sets of water drops underwent multiple cycles of freezing and melting. The drops contained suspended particles of mixtures of mater...

Carte, A. E.: The freezing of water droplets, Proc. Phys. Soc., B 69(10), 1028–1037, 1956.; Bayardelle, M.: Sur le mecanisme de la congelation de l'eau dans les nuages, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci., 239(16), 988–989, 1954.; Bigg, E. K.: The supercooling of water, Proc. Phys. Soc., B 66, 688–694, 1953.; Carte, A. E.: Probability of freezing, Proc. Phys. Soc., B 73, 324, 1959.; Diehl, K. and Wurzler, S.: Heterogeneous drop freezing in the immersion mode: Model calculations cons...

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Evaluation of Wrf Mesoscale Simulations and Particle Trajectory An...

By: L. T. Molina; N. Bei; M. Zavala; B. De Foy

Description: Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Saint Louis University, MO, USA. Accurate numerical simulations of the complex wind flows in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) can be an invaluable tool for interpreting the MILAGRO field campaign results. This paper uses three methods to evaluate numerical simulations of basin meteorology using the MM5 and WRF models: statistical comparisons with observations, Concentration Field Analysis (CFA) using ...

Aristotle: Nichomachean Ethics, chap. Book I, Chapter III, Longmans, Green and Co., 1891.; Ashbaugh, L L., Malm, W C., and Sadeh, W Z.: A residence time probability analysis of sulfur concentrations at grand-canyon-national-park, Atmos. Environ., 19, 1263–1270, 1985.; Bao, J W., Michelson, S A., Persson, P. O G., Djalalova, I V., and Wilczak, J M.: Observed and WRF-simulated low-level winds in a high-ozone episode during the Central California Ozone Study, J. Appl. Meteo...

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Compilation and Evaluation of Gas-phase Diffusion Coefficients of ...

By: M. Kalberer; R. A. Cox; M. J. Tang

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK. Diffusion of gas molecules to the surface is the first step for all gas-surface reactions. Gas phase diffusion can influence and sometimes even limit the overall rates of these reactions; however, there is no database of the gas phase diffusion coefficients of atmospheric reactive trace gases. Here we compile and evaluate, for the first time, the diffusivities (pressure-indepe...

Abbatt, J. P. D.: Interactions of atmospheric trace gases with ice surfaces: Adsorption and reaction, Chem. Rev., 103, 4783–4800, 2003.; Abbatt, J. P. D. and Molina, M. J.: Heterogeneous interactions of ClONO2 and HCl on nitric-acid trihydrate at 202 K, J. Phys. Chem., 96, 7674–7679, 1992.; Abbatt, J. P. D., Lee, A. K. Y., and Thornton, J. A.: Quantifying trace gas uptake to tropospheric aerosol: recent advances and remaining challenges, Chem. Soc...

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Turbulence Dissipation Rate Derivation for Meandering Occurrences ...

By: C. R. P. Szinvelski; J. C. Carvalho; A. U. Timm; G. A. Degrazia; L. Buligon; A. Goulart

Description: Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A new formulation for the turbulence dissipation rate Ε occurring in meandering conditions has been presented. The derivation consists of a MacLaurin series expansion of a lateral dispersion parameter that represents cases in which turbulence and oscillatory movements associated to the meandering events coexist. The new formulation presents the identical physical premi...

Anfossi, D., Ferrero, E., Sacchetti, D., and Trini Castelli, S. Comparison among empirical probability density functions of the vertical velocity in the surface layer based on higher order correlations, Bound.-Lay. Meteor., 82, 193–218, 1997.; Brusasca, G., Tinarelli, G., and Anfossi, D.: Particle model simulation of diffusion in low wind speed stable conditions, Atmos. Environ., 26a, 707–723, 1992.; Anfossi, D., Oettl, D., Degrazia, G. A., and Goulart, A.: An analysis o...

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The 1985 Southern Hemisphere Mid-latitude Total Column Ozone Anoma...

By: H. Garny; D. Smale; M. Dameris; G. E. Bodeker; R. Deckert

Description: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Lauder, New Zealand. One of the most significant events in the evolution of the ozone layer over southern mid-latitudes since the late 1970s was the large decrease observed in 1985. This event remains unexplained and most state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry-transport models are unable to reproduce it. In this study, the 1985 southern hemisphere mid-latitude total column ozone anomaly is analyzed i...

Ajtic, J., Connor, B. J., Lawrence, B. N., Bodeker, G. E., Hoppel, K. W., Rosenfield, J. E., and Heuff, D. N.: Dilution of the Antarctic ozone hole into southern midlatitudes, 1998-2000, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D17107, doi:10.1029/2003JD004500, 2004.; Baldwin, M. P., Gray, L. J., Dunkerton, T. J., Hamilton, K., Haynes, P. H., Randel, W. J., Holton, J. R., Alexander, M. J., Hirota, I., Horinouchi, T., Jones, D. B. A., Kinnersley, J. S., Marquardt, C., Sato, K., and Takahas...

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Repeatability and Randomness in Heterogeneous Freezing Nucleation ...

By: G. Vali

Description: Department of Atmospheric Science University of Wyoming Laramie, WY 82071, USA. This study is aimed at clarifying the relative importance of the specific character of the nuclei and of the duration of supercooling in heterogeneous freezing nucleation by immersed impurities. Laboratory experiments were carried out in which sets of water drops underwent multiple cycles of freezing and melting. The drops contained suspended particles of mixtures of materia...

Bayardelle, M.: Sur le mecanisme de la congelation de l'eau dans les nuages, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci., 239(16), 988–989, 1954.; Bigg, E. K.: The supercooling of water, Proc. Phys. Soc., 66, 688–694, 1953.; Carte, A. E.: Probability of freezing, Proc. Phys. Soc., 73, 324, 1959.; Carte, A. E.: The freezing of water droplets. Proc. Phys. Soc., 69(10), 1028–1037, 1956.; Diehl, K. and Wurzler, S.: Heterogeneous drop freezing in the immersion mode: Model calculations considerin...

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Evaluation of Wrf Mesoscale Simulations and Particle Trajectory An...

By: M. Zavala; N. Bei; L. T. Molina; B. De Foy

Description: Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Saint Louis University, MO, USA. Accurate numerical simulations of the complex wind flows in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) can be an invaluable tool for interpreting the MILAGRO field campaign results. This paper uses three methods to evaluate numerical simulations of basin meteorology using the MM5 and WRF models: statistical comparisons with observations, Concentration Field Analysis (CFA) usin...

Aristotle: Nichomachean Ethics, Book I, Chapter III. Longmans, Green and Co., 1891.; Ashbaugh, L L., Malm, W C., and Sadeh, W Z.: A residence time probability analysis of sulfur concentrations at grand-canyon-national-park, Atmos. Environ., 19, 1263–1270, 1985.; Bao, J W., Michelson, S A., Persson, P. O G., Djalalova, I V., and Wilczak, J M.: Observed and WRF-simulated low-level winds in a high-ozone episode during the Central California Ozone Study, J. Appl. Meteorol. C...

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Characterization of Video Disdrometer Uncertainties and Impacts on...

By: G. L. Stephens; T. S. L'Ecuyer; F. L. Bliven; N. B. Wood

Description: Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Estimates of snow microphysical properties obtained by analyzing collections of individual particles are often limited to short timescales and coarse time resolution. Retrievals using disdrometer observations coincident with bulk measurements such as radar reflectivity and snowfall amounts may overcome these limitations; however, ...

Atlas, D., Kerker, M., and Hitschfeld, W.: Scattering and attenuation by non-spherical atmospheric particles, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 3, 108–119, 1953.; Battan, L. J.: Radar observation of the atmosphere, TechBooks, Herndon, VA, 324 pp., 1973.; Battaglia, A., Rustemeier, E., Tokay, A., Blahak, U., and Simmer, C.: PARSIVEL snow observations: a critical assessment, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 27, 333–344, doi:10.1175/2009JTECHA...

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Quantifying and Containing the Curse of High Resolution Coronal Im...

By: J.-f. Hochedez; P. Chainais; V. Delouille

Description: Royal Observatory of Belgium, Circular Avenue 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium. Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO), InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI) having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km)2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon counts availab...

Abramenko, V I.: Multifractal Analysis Of Solar Magnetograms, Solar Phys., 228, 29–42, \doi10.1007/s11207-005-3525-9, 2005.; Abry, P., Jaffard, S., and Lashermes, B.: Revisiting scaling, multifractal, and multiplicatives cascades with the wavelet leader lens, in: SPIE, 5607, 103–117, 2004.; Aletti, V., Velli, M., Bocchialini, K., Einaudi, G., Georgoulis, M., and Vial, J.-C.: Microscale Structures on the Quiet Sun and Coronal Heating, Appl. Phys. J., 544, 550–557, \doi10....

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Determining the Boundaries of the Auroral Oval from Champ Field-al...

By: H. Wang; H. Lühr; M. G. Johnsen; C. Xiong

Description: Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. In this paper we present the first statistical study on auroral oval boundaries derived from small- and medium-scale field-aligned currents (FACs, < 150 km). The dynamics of both the equatorward and poleward boundaries is deduced from 10 years of CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) magnetic field data (August 2000–August 2010). The approach...

Aikio, A. T., Pitkänen, T., Kozlovsky, A., and Amm, O.: Method to locate the polar cap boundary in the nightside ionosphere and application to a substorm event, Ann. Geophys., 24, 1905–1917, doi:10.5194/angeo-24-1905-2006, 2006.; Akasofu, S.-I.: The auroral oval, the auroral substorm and their relations with the internal structure of the magnetosphere, Planet. Space Sci., 14, 587–595, 1966.; Baker, D. N., Pulkkinen...

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Single Snapshot Doa Estimation : Volume 8, Issue 16 (01/10/2010)

By: P. Häcker; B. Yang

Description: Chair of System Theory and Signal Processing, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany. In array signal processing, direction of arrival (DOA) estimation has been studied for decades. Many algorithms have been proposed and their performance has been studied thoroughly. Yet, most of these works are focused on the asymptotic case of a large number of snapshots. In automotive radar applications like driver assistance systems, howe...

Krim, H. and Viberg, M.: Two Decades of Array Signal Processing Research, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 13, 67–94, 1996.; Li, J., Stoica, P., and Liu, Z.-S.: Comparative Study of IQML and MODE Direction-of-Arrival Estimators, IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, 46, 149–160, 1998.; Athley, F.: Threshold Region Performance of Maximum Likelihood Direction of Arrival Estimators, IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, 53, 1359–1373, 2005.; Barabell, A J.: Improving the Resolution...

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Stochastic Analysis of Field-scale Heat Advection in Heterogeneous...

By: H.-d. Yeh; C.-m. Chang

Description: Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. Owing to the analogy between the solute and heat transport processes, it can be expected that the rate of growth of the spatial second moments of the heat flux in a heterogeneous aquifer over relatively large space scales is greater than that predicted by applying the classical heat transport model. The motivation of stochastic analysis of heat transport at the fiel...

Lo Russo, S. and Taddia, G.: Advective heat transport in an unconfined aquifer induced by the field injection of an open-loop groundwater heat pump, American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 6, 253–259, 2010; Morales-Casique, E., Neuman, S. P., and Guadagnini, A.: Non-local and localized analyses of non-reactive solute transport in bounded randomly heterogeneous porous media: Theoretical framework, Adv. Water Resour., 29, 1399–1418, 2006.; Naff, R. L. and Vecchia, A. V...

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River Flow Forecasting with Artificial Neural Networks Using Satel...

By: G. A. Corzo; S. J. Van Andel; A. Jonoski; M. K. Akhtar

Description: UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Department of Hydroinformatics and Knowledge management, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands. This paper explores the use of flow length and travel time as a pre-processing step for incorporating spatial precipitation information into Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models used for river flow forecasting. Spatially distributed precipitation is commonly required when modelling large basins, and it is usua...

Abrahart, R. J., Heppenstall, A. J., and See, L. M.: Timing error correction procedure applied to neural network rainfall-runoff modelling, Hydrol. Sci. J., 52, 414–431, 2007.; Abrahart, R. J. and See, L.: Comparing neural network and autoregressive moving average techniques for the provision of continous river flow forecasts in two contrasting catchments, Hydrol. Process., 14, 2157–2172, 2000.; Akhtar, M. K.: Flood Forecasting for Bangladesh with satellite Data, Msc the...

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Storms of Crustal Stress and Ae Earthquake Precursors : Volume 10,...

By: C. Rafanelli; S. De Simone; G. Paparo; M. Poscolieri; G. Ventrice; G. P. Gregori

Description: IDAC – Istituto di Acustica O. M. Corbino (CNR), via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy. Acoustic emission (AE) displays violent paroxysms preceding strong earthquakes, observed within some large area (several hundred kilometres wide) around the epicentre. We call them storms of crustal stress or, briefly crustal storms. A few case histories are discussed, all dealing with the Italian peninsula, and with the different behaviour sho...

Akasofu, S. I.: The development of the auroral substorm, Planet. Space Sciences, 12(4), 273–282, 1964.; Akasofu, S. I.: Polar and magnetospheric substorms, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, 280 pp., 1968.; Arley, N. and Buch, K. R: Introduction to the theory of probability and statistics, Science Editions, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 240 pp., 1950.; Bak, P., Tang, C., and Wiesenfeld, K.: Self-organizing criticality. An explanation of $1/f$ noise, Phys. Rev. Lett.,...

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An Entropy Approach for Evaluating the Maximum Information Content...

By: F. Russo; F. Napolitano; V. Montesarchio; E. Ridolfi

Description: Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy. Hydrological models are the basis of operational flood-forecasting systems. The accuracy of these models is strongly dependent on the quality and quantity of the input information represented by rainfall height. Finer space-time rainfall resolution results in more accurate hazard forecasting. In this framework, an optimum raingauge network is essential in pre...

Amorocho, J. and Espildora, B.: Entropy in the assessment of uncertainty in hydrologic systems and models, Water Resour. Res., 9(6), 1511–1522, 1973.; Bras, R. L. and Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.: Random functions and hydrology, Addison Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1985.; Harmancioglu, N. and Yevjevich, V.: Transfer of hydrologic information along rivers partially fed by karstified limestones, IAHS-AISH Publication, 161, 115–131, 1985.; Husain, T.: Hydrologic uncertainty measure and ...

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Estimation of Seismic Ground Motions Using Deterministic Approach ...

By: D. Choudhury; J. Shukla

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076, India. A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismi...

Abrahamson N. A. and Silva W. J.: Empirical Response Spectral Attenuation Relations for Shallow Crustal Earthquakes, Seismol. Res. Lett., 68, 1, 94–127, 1997.; Anbazhagan P., Vinod, J. S., and Sitharam, T. G.: Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Bangalore, Nat. Hazards, 48, 2, 145–166, 2009.; Ashara L. V., Patel J. N., Abdul Hamid, Srivastava, S., and Kumar, S.: Broadband seismic network for Gujarat, Proc. of 13{th} Symposium on Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee,...

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Rogue Waves, Rogue Events and Extreme Wave Kinematics in Spatio-te...

By: A. Slunyaev; A. Sergeeva

Description: Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. An approach to the extensive study of rogue wave occurrence in numerical simulations is presented. As a result of numerical simulations of the unidirectional wave evolution, spatio-temporal fields of wave data of the size 20 min × 10 km are obtained with high resolution in time and space and are used for statistical analysis with the focus on extreme waves. Having the exhaustive information on the w...

Annenkov, S. Y. and Shrira, V. I.: Evolution of kurtosis for wind waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13603, doi:10.1029/2009GL038613, 2009.; Chalikov, D.: Freak waves: Their occurrence and probability, Phys. Fluids, 21, 076602, doi:10.1063/1.3175713, 2009.; Chalikov, D.: Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 12, 671–689, ...

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Evaluation of Far-field Tsunami Hazard in French Polynesia Based o...

By: D. Reymond; F. Schindelé; A. Sladen; H. Hébert

Description: Laboratoire de Détection et de Géophysique, CEA/DASE, Bruyères-le-Châtel, BP 12, 91680, France. The first tsunami hazard map of French Polynesia is presented here on the basis of historical data, and numerical simulations.

French Polynesia, because of its central position in the most tsunami prone ocean, the Pacific, is strongly exposed to far-field tsunamis. As no previous study on the area had been conducted, we compiled catalogues of all the...

Ben-Menahem, A. and Rosenman, M.: Amplitude patterns of tsunami waves from submarine earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 3097–3128, 1972.; Duncan, R. and McDougall, J L.: Linear volcanism in French Polynesia, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 1, 197–227, 1976.; Candelot, J.: Tai Toko ! ou l'imminence d'un cataclysme, Association des historiens et géographes de Polynésie fran\c caise et Centre territorial de recherche et de documentation pédagogique de Polynésie fran\c caise, P...

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