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Alternative Control Techniques Document-No Emissions from Cement Manufacturing

By Environmental Protection Agency

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Book Id: WPLBN0000017069
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.6 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007

Title: Alternative Control Techniques Document-No Emissions from Cement Manufacturing  
Author: Environmental Protection Agency
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Agency, E. P. (n.d.). Alternative Control Techniques Document-No Emissions from Cement Manufacturing. Retrieved from http://www.nationalpubliclibrary.com/


Description
Excerpt: T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Chapter Page i LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 2 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1 UNCONTROLLED NO EMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 x 2.2 NO EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES . . . . . . . 2-2 x 2.3 COSTS AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NO CONTROL x TECHNOLOGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 2.4 IMPACTS OF NO CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 x 3 INDUSTRY DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1 BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.2 TYPES OF CEMENT PRODUCED . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 3.3 INDUSTRY CHARACTERIZATION . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3.1 Description of the Cement Industry . . . 3-3 3.3.2 Overview of Cement Manufacturing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 3.3.3 Raw Materials and Kiln Feed Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 3.3.4 Pyroprocessing . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 3.3.4.1 Wet Process Kilns . . . . . . 3-15 3.3.4.2 Dry Process Kilns . . . . . . 3-15 3.3.4.3 Suspension Preheaters . . . . 3-16 3.3.4.4 Precalciner Systems . . . . . 3-17 3.3.5 Finish Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 3.3.6 Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 3.3.7 Emission Control Systems . . . . . . . 3-18 3.4 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 4 UNCONTROLLED NO EMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS (con.) Chapter iii Selective Noncatalytic Reduction (SNCR) 5-15 SUMMARY OF APPLICABLE NO CONTROL x TECHNOLOGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19 5.4 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22 6 COSTS OF NO CONTROL TECHNIQUES . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 x 6.1 COST CALCULATION METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6.1.1 Model Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6.1.2 Capital Cost Estimation . . . . . . . . 6-3 6.1.3 Annual Operating Costs . . . . . . . . . 6-3 6.1.3.1 Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 6.1.3.2 Operating and Supervising Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6.1.3.3 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6.1.3.4 Overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6.1.3.5 Property Taxes . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6.1.3.6 Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6.1.3.7 Administrative Charges . . . . . 6-7 6.1.3.8 Capital Recovery . . . . . . . . 6-7 6.2 COSTS OF NO CONTROL APPROACHES . . . . . . . . 6-7 x 6.2.1 Combustion Control Approaches for Reduction in NO Formation . . . . . . . 6-7 x 6.2.1.1 Combustion Zone Control of Temperature and Excess Air . . . 6-7 6.2.1.2 Process Modifications . . . . . 6-8 6.2.1.3 Low-NO burners . . . . . . . . 6-8 x 6.2.1.4 Secondary Combustion of Fuel . 6-16 6.2.2 Postcombustion Control Approaches for NO Emissions Control . . . . . . . 6-17 x 6.2.2.1 Selective Noncatalytic Reduction . . . . . . . . . . 6-17 6.2.2.2 Selective Catalytic Reduction 6-23

 

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